SANNING RÄTTVISA KÄRLEK
Argentina: The Country That Monsanto Poisoned:
"American biotechnology has turned Argentina into the world’s third-largest soybean producer, but the chemicals powering the boom aren’t confined to soy and cotton and corn fields. They routinely contaminate homes and classrooms and drinking water."
"In the heart of Argentina’s soybean business, house-to-house surveys of 65,000 people in farming communities found cancer rates two to four times higher than the national average, as well as higher rates of hypothyroidism and chronic respiratory illnesses."
"In the last 20 years, agrochemical spraying has increased eightfold in Argentina- from 9 million gallons in 1990 to 84 million gallons today. Glyphosate, the key ingredient in Monsanto’s Round Up products, is used roughly eight to ten times more per acre than in the United States."
"BASAVILBASO, Argentina (AP) — Argentine farmworker Fabian Tomasi was never trained to handle pesticides. His job was to keep the crop-dusters flying by filling their tanks as quickly as possible, although it often meant getting drenched in poison.
Now, at 47, he’s a living skeleton, so weak he can hardly swallow or go to the bathroom on his own.
Schoolteacher Andrea Druetta lives in Santa Fe Province, the heart of Argentina’s soy country, where agrochemical spraying is banned within 500 meters (550 yards) of populated areas. But soy is planted just 30 meters (33 yards) from her back door. Her boys were showered in chemicals recently while swimming in the backyard pool.
After Sofia Gatica lost her newborn to kidney failure, she filed a complaint that led to Argentina’s first criminal convictions for illegal spraying. But last year’s verdict came too late for many of her 5,300 neighbors in Ituzaingo Annex. A government study there found alarming levels of agrochemical contamination in the soil and drinking water, and 80 percent of the children surveyed carried traces of pesticide in their blood."
Företagets första produkter var sötningsmedlet sackarin, vilket företaget sålde till Coca-cola.
Företaget var ett av flera tillverkare av avlövningsmedlet Agent Orange till USA:s avlövningskampanj under Vietnamkriget.
Det ursprungliga Monsanto utvecklade växtgiftet glyfosat och hade patent på det fram till patentet gick ut år 2000.
Monsanto har även under perioder tillverkat miljögifter som DDT och vissa PCB föreningar.
Det nya Monsanto tillverkar fortfarande det glyfosat-baserade RoundUp, men efter att patentet gick ut har Kina tagit över som världens största producent av glyfosat-baserade bekämpningsmedel.
Monsanto har tagit fram ett antal GMO-grödor, som modifierats för att ha en hög tålighet mot Roundup och andra glyfosat-baserade bekämpningsmedel. Dessa säljs under beteckningen "Roundup ready".
Monsanto i Sverige:
2012 gav jordbruksverket klartecken för Monsanto att i fältförsök odla den genmodifierade sockerbetan H7-1 i Lund, Kävlinge, Staffanstorp, Svedala och Kristianstad för att utvärdera de agronomiska egenskaperna och tåligheten mot ogräsmedel.
Proteströrelsen mot Monsanto och GMO:
March Against Monsanto är en internationell proteströrelse mot Monsanto och genmodifierade grödor över lag. Den 24 maj arrangerades demonstrationer i 436 städer runt om i världen."
"Monsanto was among the first to genetically modify a plant cell, as one of four groups announcing the introduction of genes into plants in 1983, and was among the first to conduct field trials of genetically modified crops, which it did in 1987. It remained one of the top 10 U.S. chemical companies until it divested most of its chemical businesses between 1997 and 2002, through a process of mergers and spin-offs that focused the company on biotechnology.
Monsanto was one of the first companies to apply the biotechnology industry business model to agriculture, using techniques developed by Genentech and other biotech drug companies in the late 1970s in California. In this business model, companies invest heavily in research and development, and recoup the expenses through the use and enforcement of biological patents. Its seed patenting model has also been criticized as biopiracy and a threat to biodiversity."
"Monsanto scientists were among the first to genetically modify a plant cell, publishing their results in 1983; five years later, the company conducted the first field tests of genetically engineered crops."
"In 1985, Monsanto acquired G. D. Searle & Company, a life sciences company focusing on pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and animal health. In 1993, Monsanto's Searle division filed a patent application for Celebrex, which in 1998 became the first selective COX‑2 inhibitor to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Celebrex became a blockbuster drug and was often mentioned as a key reason for Pfizer's acquisition of Monsanto's pharmaceutical business in 2002."
"1996 to present: growth into world's largest-grossing seed company:
In 1996, Monsanto purchased Agracetus, the biotechnology company that had generated the first transgenic varieties of cotton, soybeans, peanuts, and other crops, and from which Monsanto had already been licensing technology since 1991. Monsanto first entered the maize seed business when it purchased 40% of DEKALB in 1996; it purchased the remainder of the corporation in 1998. In 1998 Monsanto purchased Cargill's international seed business, which gave it access to sales and distribution facilities in 51 countries. In 2005, it finalized the purchase of Seminis Inc, a leading global vegetable and fruit seed company, for $1.4 billion. This made it the world's largest conventional seed company at the time.
In 2007, Monsanto and BASF announced a long-term agreement to cooperate in the research, development, and marketing of new plant biotechnology products."
In 2009, Monsanto scientists initially discovered that insects had developed resistance to the Bt Cotton planted in Gujarat and when studies were completed, Monsanto communicated this to the Indian government and its customers, stating that "Resistance is natural and expected, so measures to delay resistance are important. Among the factors that may have contributed to pink bollworm resistance to the Cry1Ac protein in Bollgard I in Gujarat are limited refuge planting and early use of unapproved Bt cotton seed, planted prior to GEAC approval of Bollgard I cotton, which may have had lower protein expression levels."
The company advised farmers to switch to its second generation of Bt cotton – Bolguard II – which had two resistance genes instead of one. However, this advice was criticized; an article in The Hindu reported that "an internal analysis of the statement of the Ministry of Environment and Forests says it 'appears that this could be a business strategy to phase out single gene events [that is, the first-generation Bollgard I product] and promote double genes [the second generation Bollgard II] which would fetch higher price.'"
Monsanto's GM cotton seed was the subject of NGO agitation because of its higher cost. Indian farmers cross GM varieties with local varieties using plant breeding to yield better strains, an illegal practice termed "seed piracy". In 2009, high prices of Bt Cotton were blamed for forcing farmers of the district Jhabua into severe debts when the crops died due to lack of rain."
In the late 1960s, the Monsanto plant in Sauget, IL. was the nation's largest producer of PCBs, which remain in the water along Dead Creek in Sauget. An EPA official referred to Sauget as "one of the most polluted communities in the region" and "a soup of different chemicals"
Agent Orange was manufactured for the U.S. Department of Defense primarily by Monsanto Corporation and Dow Chemical. It was given its name from the color of the orange-striped barrels in which it was shipped, and was by far the most widely used of the so-called "Rainbow Herbicides".
In 2002, the Washington Post carried a front-page report on Monsanto's legacy of environmental damage in Anniston, Alabama, related to its legal production of PCBs. Plaintiffs in a lawsuit pending at that time provided documentation showing that the local Monsanto factory knowingly discharged both mercury and PCB-laden waste into local creeks for over 40 years. In another story published in 2002, the New York Times reported that during 1969 alone Monsanto had dumped 45 tons of PCBs into Snow Creek, a feeder for Choccolocco Creek which supplies much of the area's drinking water, and that the company buried millions of pounds of PCB in open-pit landfills located on hillsides above the plant and surrounding neighborhoods. In August 2003, Solutia and Monsanto agreed to pay plaintiffs $700 million to settle claims by over 20,000 Anniston residents related to PCB contamination.
As of November 2013, Monsanto was associated with 9 "active" Superfund sites and 32 "archived" sites in the US, in the EPA's Superfund database. Monsanto has been sued, and has settled, multiple times for damaging the health of its employees or residents near its Superfund sites through pollution and poisoning."
"Brofiscin Quarry was used as a waste site from about 1965 to 1972 and accepted waste from BP, Veolia, and Monsanto. A 2005 report by Environmental Agency Wales found that the quarry contained up to 75 toxic substances, including heavy metals, Agent Orange, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
In February 2011 Monsanto agreed to help with the costs of remediation, but did not accept responsibility for the pollution. In 2011 Environment Agency Wales and the Rhondda Cynon Taf council announced that they had decided to place an engineered cap over the waste mass in the quarry and stated that the cost would be 1.5 million pounds; previous estimates discussed in the media had been as high as £100 million, which Environment Agency Wales had dismissed. The site was cleared of vegetation and engineering work began in October 2011."
History, 1901 to WWII:
"Monsanto was founded in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1901 as a chemical company, by John Francis Queeny, a 30‑year veteran of the pharmaceutical industry. The company's first products were commodity food additives, like the artificial sweetener saccharin, caffeine, and vanillin."
Later Monsanto began selling saccharin to coca cola company for sweetening the product.
Monsanto began manufacturing DDT in 1944:
"DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is a colorless, crystalline, tasteless and almost odorless organochlorine known for its insecticidal properties and environmental impacts. DDT has been formulated in multiple forms, including solutions in xylene or petroleum distillates, emulsifiable concentrates, water-wettable powders, granules, aerosols, smoke candles and charges for vaporizers and lotions."
"In 1962, Rachel Carson published the book Silent Spring. It cataloged the environmental impacts of widespread DDT spraying in the United States and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of potentially dangerous chemicals into the environment without understanding their effects on the environment or human health. The book claimed that DDT and other pesticides had been shown to cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. Its publication was a seminal event for the environmental movement and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led, in 1972, to a ban on DDT's agricultural use in the United States. A worldwide ban on agricultural use was formalized under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, but its limited and still-controversial use in disease vector control continues."
"The United States ban on DDT is cited by scientists as a major factor in the comeback of the bald eagle and the peregrine falcon from near-extinction in the contiguous United States."
Other legal actions:
"In 2004, the world's largest agrichemical company, Switzerland's Syngenta, launched a US lawsuit charging Monsanto with using coercive tactics to monopolize markets.A flurry of litigation ensued, all of which was settled in 2008.
In 2005, the US DOJ filed a Deferred Prosecution Agreement in which Monsanto admitted to violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (15 U.S.C. § 78dd-1) and making false entries into its books and records (15 U.S.C § 78m(b)(2) & (5)). Monsanto also agreed to pay a $1.5 million fine. The case involved bribes paid to an Indonesian official.
Monsanto admitted a senior manager at Monsanto directed an Indonesian consulting firm to give a $50,000 bribe to a high-level official in Indonesia's environment ministry in 2002 related to the agency's assessment on its genetically modified cotton. Monsanto told the company to disguise an invoice for the bribe as "consulting fees".
Monsanto also has admitted to paying bribes to a number of other high-ranking Indonesian officials between 1997 and 2002. On March 5, 2008, the deferred prosecution agreement against Monsanto was dismissed with prejudice (unopposed by the Department of Justice) by the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, thereby indicating that Monsanto had complied fully with the terms of the agreement."
List of companies that uses Monsanto products:
"DuPont was founded in 1802 by Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, using capital raised in France and gunpowder machinery imported from France. The company was started at the Eleutherian Mills, on the Brandywine Creek, near Wilmington, Delaware, two years after he and his family left France to escape the French Revolution.
It began as a manufacturer of gunpowder, as du Pont noticed that the industry in North America was lagging behind Europe. The company grew quickly, and by the mid-19th century had become the largest supplier of gunpowder to the United States military, supplying half the powder used by the Union Army during the American Civil War."
Second World War: 1941 to 1945
"DuPont ranked 15th among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. DuPont also played a major role in the Manhattan Project in 1943, designing, building and operating the Hanford plutonium producing plant in Hanford, Washington. In 1950 DuPont also agreed to build the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina as part of the effort to create a hydrogen bomb."
Genetically modified foods:
"Main article: Genetically modified food controversies.
Pioneer Hi-Bred, a DuPont subsidiary, manufactures genetically modified seeds, other tools, and agricultural technologies used to increase crop yield."
"DuPont, along with Thomas Midgley working under Charles Kettering of General Motors, was the inventor of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons).
CFCs are ozone-depleting chemicals that were used primarily in aerosol sprays and refrigerants.
DuPont was the largest CFC producer in the world with a 25 percent market share in the 1980s, totaling $600 million in annual sales.
On March 14 of the same year, scientists from the National Aeronautics and Space Agency announced the results of a study demonstrating a 2.3% decline in mid-latitude ozone levels between 1969 and 1986, along with evidence tying the decline to CFCs in the upper atmosphere. On March 24, DuPont reversed its position, calling the NASA results "important new information" and announcing that it would phase out CFC production.
Perfluorooctanoic acid lasts around 90 years in the environment, remaining toxic, and appears to have a half-life of about 4 years in the human body. In 2014, the International Agency for Research on Cancer designated PFOA as "possibly carcinogenic" in humans.
One Ohio resident was awarded $1.6 million when a jury in 2015 found that her kidney cancer was caused by PFOA in drinking water. There are 3,400 similar cases awaiting trial.
According to the co-lead counselor, internal documents revealed during trial showed DuPont knew of a link between PFOA and cancers since 1997.
DuPont maintains it has always handled PFOA "reasonably and responsibly" based on the information they, and industry regulators, had available during its use. However, the jury concluded that DuPont did not act to prevent harm or inform the public, despite the information available."
"In October 2010 DuPont began marketing a pesticide called Imprelis, for control of certain plants in turf areas. It had the unintended effect of killing certain evergreen tree species and was recalled."
"Data from the EPA’s Toxic Release Inventory database included in the Political Economy Research Institute studies likewise show a reduction in DuPont’s emissions from 12.4 million lbs of air releases and 22.4 million lbs of toxic incinerator transfers in 2006 to 10.94 million lbs and 22.0 million pounds respectively in 2010.
Over the same period, the Political Economy Research Institutes Toxic score for DuPont increased from 122,426 to 7,086,303.
One of DuPont's facilities was listed No. 4 on the Mother Jones Top 20 polluters of 2010, legally discharging over 5,000,000 pounds (2,300,000 kg) of toxic chemicals into New Jersey/Delaware waterways."
Between 2007 and 2014 there were 34 accidents resulting in toxic releases at DuPont plants across the U.S., with no fewer than 8 fatalities. Four employees died of suffocation in a Houston, Texas accident involving leakage of nearly 24,000 pounds (11,000 kg) of methyl mercaptan."
DuPont patenterar Nylon:
Under andra världskriget uppfanns nylon som ersättning för hampa och siden i fallskärmar. Nylon var från början ett varumärke som lanserades av DuPont 1938 men blev med tiden ett allmängiltigt varumärkesord.
Syntes av nylon i en kontinuerlig process kan gå till på följande sätt:
Råmaterial är luft, vatten och stenkol
1.Stenkolen brännes, varvid erhålles koks, lysgas och stenkoltjära. Lysgasen är en biprodukt vid nylontillverkning, men är värdefull och kan användas till annat, vilket ej beskrivs vidare i denna redogörelse för nylontillverkning.
Nu börjar flera parallella processer:
2.1 När koksen kommer ut ur gasugnen släckes den med vatten. Ur vattenångan som bildas vid släckningen utvinnes hydrogen (vätgas) och oxygen (syrgas).
2.2 Stenkoltjäran är basmaterial för ett stort antal tekniska produkter, bl a det fenol, som behövs vid nylonsyntesen.
3. Ur luft utvinnes nitrogen (kvävgas). Av denna nitrogen plus hydrogen från processteg 2.1 erhålles ammoniak.
4. Av hydrogen från steg 2.1 och fenol från steg 2.2 görs cyklohexanol
5. Av cyklohexanol och oxygen från steg 2.1 görs adipinsyra.
6. Ammoniak från steg 3 + adipinsyra ger hexametylendiamin
7. Genom ytterligare tillförsel av adipinsyra till hexametylendiamin fälles nylonsalt (kaprolaktam = hexametylen-diamin-adipat)
8. Nylonsaltet hettas upp under tryck i en autoklav varvid nylonsaltet polymeriseras till en oordnad hög med nylonfjäll.
9. Fjällen skakas i en så kallad hopper, så att de i en någorlunda jämn ström går vidare till en uppvärmningsanordning och smälter. En pump trycker ut smält nylon genom en horisontell hålskiva (spinndysa) med mycket små hål. Den smälta nylonen är seg och bildar sammanhängande spindelvävstunna fibrer som hänger ned under hålskivan.
10. Väl ute från hålskivan möter nylonfibrerna en luftfläkt, som kyler dem så att de stelnar.
11. Fibern kan nu slutbehandlas på två sätt:
11.1 Antingen spolas upp på spolar i form av obruten fiber, som lämnar tillverkningsprocessen och går vidare till olika tillämpningar.
11.2 Alternativt går fibern till ett sträckverk i flera steg, varvid fiberdiametern minskar.
12. Fibern skrynklas nu och huggs upp i småbitar, som packas i stora balar om ca 125 kg för vidare transport till spinnerier för tillverkning av spunnen nylontråd. Skrynklingen gör att de korta fibrerna hugger tag i varandra och inte glider så lätt. Detta bidrar till en stark tråd.
"Bayer, BASF and Syngenta are suing the European Commission to overturn a ban on the pesticides that are killing millions of bees around the world.
A huge public push won this landmark ban -- and we can't sit back and let Big Pesticide overturn it while the bees vanish.
The UN sounded the alarm bells: Unless we act now, the bees are at risk of global extinction. We have to show Bayer and Co. now that we won't tolerate them putting their profits ahead of our planet's health."
The chemicals group now consists of four business units.
- Functional Chemicals (FC)
- Industrial Chemicals (IC), before 1 January 2009 known as Base Chemicals (BC)
- Pulp and Performance Chemicals, under brand name Eka (PPC)
- Surface Chemistry (SC)
The divestment of the former business unit of Chemicals Pakistan was completed in Q4 2012.
As chemicals producer, AkzoNobel is a world leading salt specialist, chloralkali products, and other industrial chemicals. Ultimately, AkzoNobel products are found in everyday items such as paper, ice cream, bakery goods, cosmetics, plastics and glass."
1646 Bofors Swedish weapons manufacturer is founded in Karlskoga.
1893 Bofors becomes a company majority owned by Alfred Nobel .
1984 Bofors acquires KemaNobel.
Nobel Industries 1984-1993:
Both Bofors and KemaNobel have historic ties to Alfred Nobel, the 19th century Swedish inventor whose invention of dynamite gave a safe way to manage the detonation of nitroglycerin.
Four major chemical companies in Great Britain merge to become Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI): British Dyestuffs Corporation, Brunner, Mond & Company, Nobel Explosives, and the United Alkali Company.
- 1993 demerges its bioscience businesses, splitting into two the publicly listed companies: ICI and Zeneca,
Zeneca later merges into AstraZeneca,
- 2008 Akzo Nobel acquires British Imperial Chemical Industries plc and rebrands the company to AkzoNobel.
Det Svenska företaget SAAB kommer på en 31 plats när det gäller vapenexport. Med en vapenförsäljning på 2950 Miljoner dollar, och en vinst på 170 miljoner dollar år 2013. Vapenförsäljningen utger 89% utav SAABs totala försäljning. Källa: SIPRI
Svenska företags vapenexport:
"Med hänvisning till att Sverige är alliansfritt eftersträvar landet att i hög grad vara självförsörjande på försvarsmateriel. På senare år har Sverige dessutom utvecklats till en av världens största exportörer av försvarsmateriel i förhållande till BNP och capita. Åren 2001 till 2011 fyrdubblades svensk krigsmaterielexport. Huvuddelen av krigsmaterielexporten är för strid. Den svenska exporten av försvarsmateriel uppgick 2014 till 8 miljarder kronor, vilket var en minskning med 33% jämfört med 2013.
Svenska vapen används på senare år i konfliktområden såsom Burma (1983, 1989 och 2012), Colombia, Pakistan, Irak, Afghanistan och Somalia. År 2012 användes granatgevär av modell Carl Gustaf av Burmas armé trots EU:s vapenembargo sedan 2010. Vapnen hade ursprungligen exporterat till Indien, och levererats via Singapore. Av de 62 länder som köpte svenska vapen 2012 var 43 part i konflikt, exempelvis USA och Indien.
De fem länder som Sverige exporterade mest till under 2013 var Thailand, USA, Norge, Saudiarabien och Indien, som tillsammans står för 58 procent av den svenska vapenexporten. 40 procent av svensk vapenexport gick 2013 till länder som organisationen Freedom House klassade som icke-fria (exempelvis Saudiarabien och Förenade arabemiraten) eller delvis fria (exempelvis Thailand)."
Monsantos kemikalier från det Amerikanska Vietnamkriget skapar än idag handikappade barn.
"English: Ho Chi Minh. Professor Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong, at Tu Du Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital is pictured with a group of handicapped children, most of them victims of Agent Orange.
Date: December 2004. Source: Alexis Duclos"
Operation Ranch Hand was a U.S. military operation during the Vietnam War, lasting from 1962 until 1971. Largely inspired by the British use of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D (Agent Orange) during the Malayan Emergency in the 1950s, it was part of the overall herbicidal warfare program during the war called "Operation Trail Dust".
Ranch Hand involved spraying an estimated 20 million U.S. gallons (76,000 m3) of defoliants and herbicides over rural areas of South Vietnam in an attempt to deprive the Viet Cong of food and vegetation cover. Areas of Laos and Cambodia were also sprayed to a lesser extent. Nearly 20,000 sorties were flown between 1961 and 1971.
During the ten years of spraying, over 5 million acres (20,000 km2) of forest and 500,000 acres (2,000 km2) of crops were heavily damaged or destroyed. Around 20% of the forests of South Vietnam were sprayed at least once. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Ranch_Hand
Major Tự Đức Phang was exposed to dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange.
Naturens Partis politiska ståndpunkt:
# Kräv att FN utreder företagen som producerade dom kemiska gifterna till Vietnamkriget, etc och stoppa all handel med dessa företagen, fram tills vi vet vilken inblandning och vilka som är skyldiga till vanskapta barn i Vietnam, krig och producerat krigsmaterial till dom senaste åren av krig.
# Avveckla SAAB Bofors vapenexport, och arbeta för att andra länder också avvecklar deras vapenexport.
# Avveckla användningen av konstgödsel och giftiga besprutningsmedel på våra Svenska åkrar! Vi ska gödsla våra åkrar med mänsklig avföring och urin, etc, i behandlad form, och odla insektståligare matväxter.
# Avveckla alla handelsavtal som tex: CETA, TTIP och ISDS, detta ger företagen makt över staten (landet), och kan stämma stater om staten har misskött sig enligt företaget.
Naturens Parti är ett svenskt politiskt parti. Vi arbetar för att stoppa företagen som förstör våran gemensamma planet!
Genom att stoppa all handel med varor som producerats på regnskogsmark, tex: Sojabönor och nötkött från Brasilien, Ceylon te från Sri Lanka och palmolja från Borneo, så hinner vi rädda våra sista regnskogar!!
Naturens Parti är det enda partiet som verkligen kämpar för att rädda planeten på riktigt, genom att stoppa företagens överproduktion. Vi har dom lösningarna som krävs för att stoppa miljöförstörningen och slöseriet med våra sista naturresurser, samt alla giftiga utsläpp som företagen orsakar på våran ömtåliga planet, varje dag!!!